Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded The Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA, on Oct. 15, 1966. Its initial mission was to protect black neighborhoods against police brutality. That year saw its share of racial violence. Cleveland, OH, had its first race riot that July, and Lansing, MI, saw the same in August. For his part, Martin Luther King Jr. was moving his peaceful civil rights movement from the South to the North, starting with Chicago, where he moved in 1966.